Although the disease burden of listeriosis on population level is low, on individual level the impact is high, largely due to severe illness and a high case fatality. Identification of risk factors supports and specifies public health actions needed for prevention. We performed a case–control study to determine host- and food-related risk factors for non-perinatal listeriosis in the Netherlands. Patients with non-perinatal listeriosis reported between July 2008 and December 2013 were compared with controls from a periodic control survey who completed a questionnaire in the same period. Higher age, male sex, underlying disease, especially cancer and kidney disease, and use of immunosuppressive medicine were strong risk factors for acquiring non-perinatal listeriosis. Analysis of the food consumption in the group of cases and controls with underlying diseases did not reveal any high-risk food products. Information and advice should continue to be given to persons at risk of severe listeriosis. Univariate analyses indicate that patients using gastric acid inhibitors are at risk. It is worth adding these patients to the group of susceptible persons.
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